## Overview
This topic covers the basic ideas of electric charge and electric current. The nature of charge carriers in conductors is explored.
## Mathematical Skills
There are a number of opportunities for the development of mathematical skills in this unit. These include recognising and using expressions in decimal and standard form; using ratios, fractions and percentages; making order of magnitude calculations; calculating areas of circles, surface areas and volumes of rectangular blocks and cylinders.
## How Science Works
There are opportunities within this topic for learners to use theories, models and ideas to develop scientific explanations.
### Learners should be able to demonstrate and apply their knowledge and understanding of:
(a) the fact that the unit of charge is the coulomb (C), and an electron's charge, e, is a very small fraction of a coulomb
(b) the fact that charge can flow through certain materials, called conductors
(c) electric current being the rate of flow of charge
(d) the use of the equation Q I t =
(e) current being measured in ampères (A), where A = C s -1
(f) the mechanism of conduction in metals as the drift of free electrons
(g) the derivation and use of the equation I nAve = for free electrons
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